VACCINES & GRAPHENE – 2. NanoMaterials as Novel Adjuvants despite Serious Toxicity for Brain, Lever and Blood
by Fabio Giuseppe Carlo Carisio
A new Asian study published in the specialized journal PubMed (library of the American National Institute of Health – NIH) explains the reasons why the infamous Graphene Oxide, nanoparticles in very thin sheets or tubes synthetic derivatives of the exfoliation of carbon graphite, has been tested in vaccines as an adjuvant, confirming however its possible danger for the human immune system.
Some details of the research conducted by Iranian scientists Bahareh Vakili, Mahboubeh Karami-Darehnaranji, Esmaeil Mirzaei, Farnaz Hosseini, Navid Nezafat from Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department Medical Nanotechnology, Computational Vaccine and Drug Design Research Center, and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran), are still kept confidential from professionals having just been published in Volume 125, part A of December 2023 of International Immunopharmacology by Science Direct, but what we read in the Abstract and in the public parts is already in itself important and disturbing at the time same for various reasons.
- confirms the experimental use of Graphene Oxide as an adjuvant in vaccines, as tested by the Graphene Flagship project of the European Commission a few weeks before the marketing of Covid-19 mRNA gene sera and as patented by a Chinese pharmaceutical company.
- accredits the potential in the field of biomedical immunity although a study on “design immunity” also conducted within the Graphene Flagship has highlighted the development of turbo-cancer in laboratory mice
- reiterates for the umpteenth time the unknown dangers on the human immune system already widely described by at least 5 international research that we had summarized in the Vaccines & Graphene – 1 investigation on the mysterious nanoparticles of Pfizer-Biontech’s Covid Comirnaty vaccine.
Multiple Toxicity with Brain and Kidney Necrosis
The study, concluded in July, revised in September and published online on 23 October 2023, is simply titled “Graphene oxide as novel vaccine adjuvant” but the conclusion is very eloquent.
«Graphene-based nanomaterials are able to absorb various antigens, as well as they have been introduced as promising vaccine adjuvants in recent years. These nanomaterials have made a tremendous impact on different fields of vaccine design due to their acceptable physicochemical features, large surface area, and functional groups. However, there is much we still have to learn about the GO impacts on immune responses, which involve both adaptive and innate defense mechanisms».
This is what we read at the end of the research by Vakili et al. who developed a biotechnological and pharmacological analysis of the use of this dangerous nanomaterials without mentioning, in the part readable without scientific accreditation and in the sources, the mysterious experiments carried out (some already revealed by Gospa News in the cycle of Vaccines & Graphene investigations – the most of which in Italian only available with simultaneous translation in English).
But the new study reveals, as the image clearly highlights, the multiple damages detected in the animals’ tissues due to Neurotoxicity for the brain with danger of necrosis, tissue degeneration and hemorrhage, Hepatotoxicity with hyperemia, increased quantity of blood in the inside the liver, Pulmonary toxicity with infiltration of macrophages and inflammatory risks with the formation of granulomas of epithelioid cells, Nephrotoxicity with the risk of inflammation and necrosis in the kidneys, and Gastrotoxicity, with damage to the epithelial cells and destruction of the gastrointestinal surface.
Finally, Hemocompatibility can produce anaphylaxis, hemolysis (physiological process of destruction of red blood cells), aggregation of platelets and increased blood clotting.
Phenomena very similar to blood clots, even lethal ones, detected after the administration of mRNA gene sera in multiple studies. A curious coincidence explained by research that detected traces of GO in Covid vaccines and in the blood of vaccinated people (see below).
Graphene Oxide in Vaccines Despite Inflammatory Dangers
«To improve antigen immunogenicity and promote long-lasting immunity, vaccine formulations have been appropriately supplemented with adjuvants. Graphene has been found to enhance the presentation of antigens to CD8+ T cells, as well as stimulating innate immune responses and inflammatory factors. Its properties, such as large surface area, water stability, and high aspect ratio, make it a suitable candidate for delivering biological substances» the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences researchers write.
«Graphene-based nanomaterials have recently attracted significant attention as a new type of vaccine adjuvants due to their potential role in the activation of immune responses. Due to the limited functionality of some approved human adjuvants for use, the development of new all-purpose adjuvants is urgently required. Research on the immunological and biomedical use of graphene oxide (GO) indicates that these nanocarriers possess excellent physicochemical properties, acceptable biocompatibility, and a high capacity for drug loading»
But then we read a recurring warning in the study:
«Graphene-based nanocarriers also could improve the function of some immune cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages through specific signaling pathways. However, GO injection can lead to significant oxidative stress and inflammation».
Adverse Effects: GO Aggregation in Blood and Cell Death
«Various surface functionalization protocols have been employed to reduce possible adverse effects of GO, such as aggregation of GO in biological liquids and induce cell death. Furthermore, these modifications enhance the properties of functionalized-GO’s qualities, making it an excellent carrier and adjuvant. Shedding light on different physicochemical and structural properties of GO and its derivatives has led to their application in various therapeutic and drug delivery fields» we read in the Abstract of the Iranian research.
Aggregation in biological liquids is precisely the phenomenon reported by the study conducted by three Italian doctors (Franco Giovannini, Riccardo Benzi Cipelli, and Gianpaolo Pisano), who, with the support of the Electronic Microscopy Laboratory of the University of Turin, detected the presence of nanoparticles with morphological and chemical characteristics similar to graphenic ones in the blood of Covid vaccinated people.
A presence of graphene oxide sheets was also detected by the Spanish academic chemist Pablo Campra in his 5 electron microscope studies on a vial of Pfizer-Biontech’s Covid mRNA gene serum.
The European Commission and DARPA projects on Neurocerebral GO use
Despite these well-known risks of toxicity, the use of graphene oxide has long been dreamed up by the European Commission, which dreams of using it also in the field of neurocerebral therapies, just like a study conducted by the Pentagon’s military agency DARPA during the Obama-Biden administration.
It goes without saying that the possible electromagnetic interaction of graphene with an external instrument can represent a real nightmare both from a bioethical point of view and from that of individual freedom.
This fear has become more concrete in light of the research of Indian scientists in Calcutta on graphene oxide nanoparticles used for biomedical purposes and controlled with a simple smartphone.